[jecode] traduire le curriculum scratch

Thierry Pasquier thierry.pasquier at emf.ccsti.eu
Jeu 4 Sep 21:40:32 UTC 2014


Bonsoir

j'ai regardé rapidement le pdf avec Adobe Acrobat Pro XI, logiciel
propriétaire d'Adobe, qui permet notamment  d'éditer le texte, les
polices et de changer les images sur l'ensemble du fichier.
Bizarrement, certaines pages ne sont pas éditables  Par exemple, les
pages 8, 9, 12, 14, 16, etc. Je n'ai pas essayé avec Inkscape.
Il semble que les exports  Acrobat Pro ou pdftotext fonctionnent
correctement ; il faudra tout de même vérifier que l'ensemble du texte
est présent. Je joins l'export Acrobat Pro qui est moins pollué et
mieux structuré que celui généré par pdftotext.

Sur la typo,  peut-être utiliser la suite de fontes libres proposée
par Adobe : Source
- Source Sans Pro : http://sourceforge.net/projects/sourcesans.adobe/
- Source Code Pro : http://sourceforge.net/projects/sourcecodepro.adobe/
- Source Serif Pro : http://sourceforge.net/projects/sourceserifpro.adobe/
infos & dépot :
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source_(police_d%27%C3%A9criture)
https://github.com/adobe-fonts

Elles sont fournies dans de nombreuses graisses, par exemple pour la
première : regular, light, extra light, italic, light italic,  extra
light italic, semi bold, bold, black, semi bold italic, bold italic,
black italic.
De quoi faire face à toutes les situations et de produire un document
peut-être plus lisible qu'avec Futura.

th
-------------- section suivante --------------









































CREATIVE COMPUTING
Karen Brennan | Christan Balch | Michelle Chung Harvard Graduate School of Education
TABLE	OF
CONTENTS






BACKGROUND	1
What is Creative Computing?	1
What is Scratch?	2
What is this guide?	2
Who is this guide for?	3
What do I need in order to use this guide?	3
What is included in this guide?	4
How should I use this guide?	5
Where did this guide come from?	5
UNIT 0 – GETTING STARTED	7
Introducing Scratch	10
Scratch Account	12
Design Journal	14
Scratch Surprise	16
Scratch Studio	18
Critique Group	20
UNIT 1 – EXPLORING	23
Programmed to Dance	26
Step-By-Step	28
10 Blocks	30
My Studio	32
Debug It!	34
About Me	36
UNIT 2 – ANIMATIONS	39
Performing Scripts	42
Build-A-Band	44
Orange Square, Purple Circle	46
It’s Alive!	48
Debug It!	50
Music Video	52



UNIT 3 – STORIES	55
Characters	58
Conversations	60
Scenes	62
Debug It!	64
Creature Construction	66
Pass It On	68
UNIT 4 – GAMES	71
Dream Game List	74
Starter Games	76
Score	80
Extensions	82
Interactions	84
Debug It!	86
UNIT 5 – DIVING DEEPER	89
Know Want Learn	92
Round Two	94
Advanced Concepts	96
Hardware & Extensions	100
Activity Design	102
My Debug It!	106
UNIT 6 – HACKATHON	109
Project Pitch	114
Project Planning	116
Design Sprint	120
Project Feedback	122
Project Check-In	124
Unfocus Group	126
Showcase Prep	128
Showcase	130
APPENDIX	133
Glossary	135
Standards	139
Computational Thinking	141
For Further Reading	147
Links	149



































WHAT IS CREATIVE COMPUTING?



 	 	
Creative computing is about creativity. Computer science and computing-related fields have long been introduced to young people in a way that is disconnected from their interests and values – emphasizing technical detail over creative potential. Creative computing supports the development of personal connections to computing, by drawing upon creativity, imagination, and interests.
Creative computing is about empowerment. Many young people with access to computers participate as consumers, rather than designers or creators. Creative computing emphasizes the knowledge, practices, and fundamental literacies that young people need to create the types of dynamic and interactive computational media that they enjoy in their daily lives.
Creative computing is about computing. Engaging in the creation of computational artifacts prepares young people for more than careers as computer scientists or programmers. It supports young people’s development as computational thinkers – individuals who can draw on computational concepts, practices, and perspectives in all aspects of their lives, across disciplines and contexts.


1





There are many different tools that can be used for creative computing. In this guide, we use Scratch, which is a free computer programming language developed by researchers at the MIT Media Lab. With Scratch, people can create a wide variety of interactive media projects – animations, stories, games, and more – and share those projects with others in an online community. Since Scratch’s launch in May 2007, hundreds of thousands of people all around the world have created and shared more than 6 million projects.






This guide is a collection of ideas, strategies, and activities for an introductory creative computing experience using the Scratch programming language. The activities are designed to support familiarity and increasing fluency with computational creativity and computational thinking. In particular, the activities encourage exploration of key computational thinking concepts (sequence, loops, parallelism, events, conditionals, operators, data) and key computational thinking practices (experimenting and iterating, testing and debugging, reusing and remixing, abstracting and modularizing). Learn more about computational thinking – what it is and how to assess its development in learners – from resources in the appendix or by visiting http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu/ct

Inspired by constructionist approaches to learning, the activities in this guide emphasize the following principles:


 	 	 	

Offer opportunities for learners to engage in designing and making, not just listening, observing, and using.
2
Offer opportunities for learners to engage in activities that are personally meaningful and relevant.
Offer opportunities for learners to engage in interactions with others as audience, coaches, and co- creators.
Offer opportunities for learners to review and rethink their creative practices.





























MUSEUM OR LIBRARY EDUCATOR




PARENT
YOUNG LEARNER




WHAT DO I NEED IN ORDER TO USE THIS GUIDE?

In addition to time and an openness to adventure, some important resources include:
+  Computers with speakers (and, optionally, microphones and webcams): for the computer-based design activities
+  Network connection: for connecting to Scratch online (if your environment does not offer a network connection, a downloadable version of Scratch is available)
+  Projector or interactive whiteboard with speakers: for sharing works-in-progress and for demonstrations
+  Design notebooks (physical or digital): for documenting, sketching, and brainstorming ideas and plans
3





Create new interactive  worlds through  collaborative storytelling. Begin by developing characters, learning to code conversations, and then situating those characters and conversations in shifting scenes. Combine characters, conversations, and scenes in a larger story project that is passed along to other creators to further develop – and possibly reimagine entirely!


Prepare for the culture of creative computing by exploring possibilities and setting up technical infrastructure (e.g., creating Scratch accounts, starting design journals) and social infrastructure (e.g., establishing critique groups). Dive into an initial creative experience by making something “surprising” happen to a Scratch character.
Connect fundamental game mechanics such  as  score and levels to key computational concepts, such as variables, operators, and conditionals. Analyze your favorite games, imagine new ones, and practice game design by implementing (and extending) classic games, like Pong.



Get comfortable with the key computational concept of sequence through a series of activities that provide varying levels of structure – from a step-by-step tutorial, to a creative challenge using a limited number of blocks, to open-ended explorations through making a project about yourself. 
Before the culminating unit, take a moment to revisit work from prior units, further exploring  advanced concepts or helping others by designing new activities or debugging challenges.



Play with visuals and audio in these activities focused on animation, art, and music. Explore Scratch’s focus on media – and the key computational concepts of loops, events, and parallelism – by building your own band, designing animated creatures, and creating a music video for a favorite song.
Put all of the computational concepts and practices into action by designing and developing a project of your own through iterative cycles of planning, making, and sharing.





4

HOW SHOULD I USE THIS GUIDE?

We encourage you to use as much or as little of the guide as you like, to design new activities, and to remix the included activities. No matter your prior experience or expertise, we think of every educator as	a	co-designer	of	the	Creative	Computing experience.  We  would  love  to  learn  about  what you’re doing, so we encourage you to document and share  your  experiences  with  us  and  with  other educators via the ScratchEd community at http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu




WHERE DID THIS GUIDE COME FROM?

This guide was developed by members of the ScratchEd research team at the Harvard Graduate School of Education – Christan Balch, Michelle Chung, and Karen Brennan. Jeff Hawson provided editing support and inexhaustible enthusiasm.

The guide contents draw on a previous version of the Creative Computing Guide (released in 2011) and on the Creative Computing Online Workshop (hosted in 2013). These were made possible with support from the National Science Foundation through grant DRL-1019396, the Google CS4HS program, and the Code-to-Learn Foundation.

We are enormously appreciative of the numerous educators who have used the previous version of this guide and participated in workshops. In particular, we would like to thank the educators who extensively tested the first guide (Russell Clough, Judy Hoffman, Kara Kestner, Alvin Kroon, Melissa Nordmann, and Tyson Spraul) and the educators who extensively reviewed the current guide (Ingrid Gustafson, Megan Haddadi, Keledy Kenkel, Adam Scharfenberger, and LeeAnn Wells).

We are also greatly appreciative of our collaborators. We would like to thank Wendy Martin, Francisco Cervantes, and Bill Tally from Education Development Center’s Center for Children & Technology, and Mitch Resnick from the MIT Media Lab for their extensive contributions in developing the computational thinking framework and resources. We would like to thank the many amazing Harvard Graduate School of Education interns who have contributed to the guide development over the past several years since the initial version in 2011, including Vanity Gee, Vanessa Gennarelli, Mylo Lam, Tomoko Matsukawa, Aaron Morris, Matthew Ong, Roshanak Razavi, Mary Jo Madda, Eric Schilling, and Elizabeth Woodbury.




5
























































6
UNIT 0
GETTING	STARTED



































YOU ARE HERE
WHAT’S INCLUDED




1	2	3	4	5	6
INTRODUCING SCRATCH	10
SCRATCH ACCOUNT	12
DESIGN JOURNAL	14
SCRATCH SURPRISE	16
SCRATCH STUDIO	18
CRITIQUE GROUP	20
7
UNIT 0
OVERVIEW
THE “BIG IDEA”

When we shared a draft of this guide with teachers, a common initial reaction was, “Unit 0?!? Why 0?”

We hoped to communicate that this is a preparatory unit, supporting you in establishing a culture of creative computing through creating, personalizing, sharing, and reflecting. Our ambition to support this type of learning culture will be evident throughout the guide.

Creative computing culture has an intellectual dimension, engaging with a set of computational concepts and practices. It has a physical dimension, encouraging interactions with others through the placement of  desks,  chairs,  and  computers.  Most importantly, it has an affective dimension, cultivating a sense of confidence and fearlessness.




LEARNING OBJECTIVES
KEY WORDS, CONCEPTS, & PRACTICES
Students will:
+  be introduced to the concept of computational creation, in the context of Scratch
+  be able to imagine possibilities for their own Scratch-based computational creation
+  profile editor
+  project page
+  studio

NOTES
+  critique croup
+  red, yellow, green
+  become familiar with resources that support their computational	 	
creation
+  prepare for creating Scratch projects by establishing Scratch accounts, exploring Scratch studios, creating design journals, and organizing critique groups

8
+  Coordinate with your IT department to make sure your computers can access the Scratch website.
+  Don’t have internet access? An offline version of Scratch is available for download: http://scratch.mit.edu/scratch2download

CHOOSE YOUR OWN ADVENTURE



Ready to get started? This unit is designed for those who are completely new to Scratch. From exploring inspiring projects, to creating a Scratch account, to having an initial experience playing with the Scratch project editor, each activity is designed to guide you and your students through the process of getting started with Scratch.
In each unit, we offer a selection of activities – but we encourage you to tinker with the choice and order of the activities. Different contexts and audiences will invite different experiences. Choose your own adventure by mixing and matching the activities in ways that are most compelling for you and the learners you support.
Not sure where to start? For more support, check out the suggested path through the activities provided below.





POSSIBLE PATH




SESSION 1	SESSION 2


 	 	 	 	 	

Watch the Scratch
Set up a Scratch
Create a design
Can you make the
Learn how to
Gather in small
overview video
account to save
journal to write
Scratch cat do
create a studio
peer groups to
and imagine
and share your
down notes and
something
and add a project
give and receive
what’s possible
projects.
reflections on the
surprising?
to the studio.
feedback on ideas
with Scratch.

process of


and projects


designing Scratch


drafts.


projects.







9




INTRODUCING SCRATCH





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
5 – 1 5    M I N U T E S





RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK








NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  If you don’t have internet access, download the Scratch overview video from Vimeo before class, available at http://vimeo.com/65583694
+  Instead of writing out their answers to the reflections prompts, encourage students to get creative by drawing their responses. (e.g., “Draw different ways you interact with computers.”)
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	

10





SCRATCH ACCOUNT

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
5 – 1 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK














NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Teachers may prefer providing their email or creating a class email address, as notifications of any inappropriate behavior on the Scratch website will be sent to the email that is registered with the account.
+  Check if any students already have an online account.
+  To remember passwords while maintaining privacy, have students write down their username and password in sealed envelopes that are kept in a secure place in the classroom.
12
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


SCRATCH ACCOUNT





You will need a Scratch account to create, save, and share your Scratch projects. The steps below will walk you through creating a new account and setting up your profile.




START HERE


!  Open a web browser and navigate to the Scratch website: http://scratch.mit.edu

!  On the homepage, click on “Join Scratch” at the top on the right or in the blue circle.

! Complete the three steps to sign up for your very own Scratch account!




DESIGN JOURNAL

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK








NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  During other guide activities, facilitate group discussions around relevant reflection prompts.
+  Decide whether design journals should be private or public.
For example, you could maintain one-on-one feedback with students through private journals or have students leave comments for peers on shared journals. Consider the pros and cons of each option.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	

14




























t>err'f 's
De	·
---..........._





SCRATCH SURPRISE

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK












NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  A major goal of this activity is to establish a culture of fearlessness, exploration, and peer collaboration. It is expected that students (and their teachers!) will not know everything ahead of time – and the environment becomes a space where everyone is learning together.
+  Make sure that your computers have the latest version of Flash to run Scratch:
http://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player.html
16
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	



In this activity, you will create a new project with Scratch and explore different Scratch blocks to make the cat do something surprising! What will you create?




START HERE


! Go to the Scratch website: http://scratch.mit.edu

!  Sign into your account.

! Click on the “Create” tab located at the top left of the browser to start a new project.

! Time to explore! Try clicking on different parts of the Scratch interface to see what happens.

! Play with different Scratch blocks! Drag and drop Scratch blocks into the scripting area. Experiment by clicking on each block to see what they do or try snapping blocks together.




SCRATCH STUDIO

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
5 – 1 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK










NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Create your own studio(s) to collect student work. Start a class Scratch Surprise studio using your Scratch account and then give students the studio link to “turn in” projects.
Create one dedicated studio to gather all class projects or distribute activities across separate studios to track student progress.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


18


SCRATCH STUDIO



Studios are collections of Scratch projects. Follow along with the steps below to  add your Scratch Surprise program to the Scratch Surprise studio on the Scratch website.





START HERE


! Go to the Scratch Surprise studio using this link: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/460431

!  Sign into your account.

! Click on “Add Projects” at the bottom of the page to show your your projects, favorite projects, and recently viewed projects.

! Use the arrows to find your Scratch Surprise project and then click “Add + ” to add your project to the






CRITIQUE GROUP

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK











NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  It can be valuable to have a dedicated group of peers to give you encouragement and feedback on your design iterations. Provide opportunities for students to continue meeting with their critique groups during Units 1-6.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


20
CRITIQUE GROUP









FEEDBACK BY
[RED] What is something that doesn’t work or could be improved?
[YELLOW]  What  is  something  that  is confusing or could be done differently?
[GREEN] What is something that works well or you really like about the project?















PARTS OF THE PROJECT THAT MIGHT BE HELPFUL TO THINK ABOUT:
+  Clarity: Did you understand what the project is supposed to do?
+  Features: What features does the project have? Does the project work as expected?
+  Appeal: How engaging is the project? Is it interactive, original, sophisticated, funny, or interesting? How did you feel as you interacted with it?
























































22



UNIT 1 EXPLORING












YOU ARE HERE
WHAT’S INCLUDED




0	2	3	4	5	6
PROGRAMMED TO DANCE	26
STEP-BY-STEP	28
10 BLOCKS	30
MY STUDIO	32
DEBUG IT!	34
ABOUT ME	36
23
UNIT 1
OVERVIEW





Many of the educators that we have worked with over the years wrestle with two questions when getting started with creative computing: “What’s the best way of helping learners get started?” and “What do I, as teacher, need to know?” The writings of Seymour Papert (a renowned mathematician, educator, and major influence on the development of Scratch through the Logo programming language) serve as inspiration for thinking about these questions.

With respect to the first question, two extreme positions tend to be taken up. Either learners need to be told what to do and should have highly structured experiences – or learners need to be left totally alone to explore under their own direction. Papert, a proponent of the notion that young learners should act as advocates for and explorers of their own thinking and learning, encouraged teachers to seek a balance between teaching and learning. Throughout the guide, we vary the amount of structure in the activities in an effort to provide balance.

With respect to the second question, educators sometimes worry that they don’t “know” enough about Scratch to be able to help others. We encourage you to take a broad view of what it means to “know” Scratch. You don’t need to know everything about the Scratch interface or how to solve every


KEY WORDS, CONCEPTS, & PRACTICES
problem that a learner encounters. But, as Papert noted, educators can serve as cognitive guides, asking questions and helping break down problems into manageable pieces.
+  experimenting
and iterating
+  testing and debugging
+  sequence
+  sprite
+  motion
+  looks
+  sound
+  costume
+  backdrop
+  tips window
+  remix
+  interactive collage
+  pair-share

LEARNING OBJECTIVES


Students will:
+  build on initial explorations of the Scratch environment by creating an interactive Scratch project
+  be introduced to a wider range of Scratch blocks
+  become familiar with the concept of sequence
+  practice experimenting and iterating while creating projects
24
NOTES



+  Make sure students already have a Scratch account for saving and sharing their projects online.
+  Think about how you plan to access your students’ work. For example, you can create class studios to collect projects, have students email you project links, or start a class blog.

CHOOSE YOUR OWN ADVENTURE


This unit includes a mix of structured and open-ended activities that engage students in exploration of the key concept of sequence – identifying and specifying an ordered series of instructions. This is often a powerful moment for students: they’re telling the computer what to do, by translating their ideas into blocks of computer code.

From a step-by-step tutorial, to playing with a constrained number of blocks, to a debugging challenge, each activity helps learners build the skills needed to create an About Me project. In the culminating project, learners will explore and experiment with sprites, costumes, looks, backdrops, and sounds to create a personalized, interactive collage in Scratch.

Take advantage of all the activities or pick a few that cater to your students’ specific needs and interests; the choice is up to you. If you’re not sure where to start, a possible order for the activities is suggested below.



POSSIBLE PATH




SESSION 1
SESSION 2
SESSION 3
SESSION 4 & SESSION 5
 	

 	 	 	 	 	

How can you
New to Scratch?
What can you
What can be
Help!
How can you
express a
Create your first
create with only
created with
Can you debug
combine images
sequence of dance
Scratch project!
10 Scratch blocks?
Scratch?
these five Scratch
and sounds to
moves using



programs?
make an
simple verbal




interactive collage
instructions?




about yourself?





25




PROGRAMMED TO DANCE
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
4 5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK






NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  This is one of several activities in this guide that are computer-free. Stepping back from the computer can support fresh perspectives on and new understandings of computational concepts, practices, and perspectives.
+  Have students write down step-by-step instructions for one of the dances. In programming, this is called “pseudocode”.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


26





STEP-BY-STEP
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK








NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  If they don’t have one already, help learners create a Scratch account using the Unit 0 Scratch Account activity, so that students can save and share their first Scratch project with friends and family.
+  Remind students how to add a project to a studio with the Unit 0 Scratch Studio activity or handout.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


28


STEP-BY-STEP


In this activity, you will follow the Step-by- Step Intro in the Tips Window to create a dancing cat in Scratch. Once you have completed the steps, experiment by adding other Scratch blocks to make the project your own.



START HERE



! Follow the Step-by-Step Intro in the Tips Window.





THINGS TO TRY	FINISHED?


! Try recording your own sounds.
! Create different backdrops.
! Turn your project into a dance party by adding more dancing sprites!
! Try designing a new costume for your
sprite.
+  Add your project to the Step-by-Step Studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475476
+  Challenge yourself to do more! Play with adding new blocks, sound, or motion.
+  Help a neighbor!
+  Choose a few new blocks to experiment with. Try them out!




10 BLOCKS
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK









NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  It’s surprising how much one can do with just 10 blocks! Take this opportunity to encourage different ideas and celebrate creativity by inviting a few students to present their projects in front of the class or by exploring other projects online in the 10 Blocks studio.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


30




10 BLOCKS



Create a project using only these 10 blocks. Use them once, twice, or multiple times, but use each block at least once.







START HERE


! Test ideas by experimenting with each block.
! Mix and match blocks in various ways.
!  Repeat!




MY STUDIO
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  If students don’t have individual Scratch accounts, create a class studio that students can curate.
+  A variety of studios can be created - students could collect
Scratch projects that are similar in theme or topic to what they want to create or gather programs that include techniques or assets to incorporate in a future creation.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


32


MY STUDIO



In this activity, you will investigate the range of creative possibility with Scratch by exploring some of the millions of projects on the Scratch website -- and start a collection of favorites in a Scratch studio!





START HERE



THINGS TO TRY	FINISHED?


! Use the search bar to find projects that relate to your interests.
! Explore each of the Animations, Art, Games,
Music, & Stories categories on the Explore page.
! Look through the Featured Studios on the homepage for ideas.
+  Challenge yourself to do more! The more Scratch projects you explore, the more you learn about what can be accomplished in Scratch!
+  Find studios created by other Scratchers that you find interesting!
+  Ask a neighbor what strategies they used to find interesting projects.
+  Share your newly created studio with a neighbor!




DEBUG	IT!
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK







NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  This activity works well in groups! Get students working in teams of 2-4 people to collectively problem solve and share debugging strategies.
+  Testing and debugging is probably the most common activity of programmers. Things rarely work as planned, so developing a set of testing and debugging strategies will be beneficial to any computational creator.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	

34




DEBUG	IT!


In this activity, you will investigate what is going awry and find a solution for each of the five Debug It! challenges.







START HERE


! Go to the Unit 1 Debug It! studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475483
! Test and debug each of the five debugging challenges in the studio.
! Write down your solution or remix the buggy program with your solution.


















! Make a list of possible bugs in the program.
! Keep track of your work! This can be a useful reminder of what you have already tried and point you toward what to try next.
!  Share and compare your problem finding and problem solving approaches with a neighbor until you find something that works for you!
+  Discuss your testing and debugging practices with a partner.
Make note of the similarities and differences in your strategies.
+  Add code commentary by right clicking on blocks in your scripts. This can help others understand different parts of your program!
+  Help a neighbor!




ABOUT ME
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
4 5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Example projects can simultaneously inspire and intimidate, open the creative space and constrain it. Encourage a wide range of creations; diversity is great!
+  Students can further personalize projects by using a camera or webcam to bring images into the project.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


36


ABOUT ME


Experiment with sprites, costumes, backdrops, looks, and sounds to create an interactive Scratch project -- a project that helps other people learn more about YOU and the ideas, activities, and people that you care about.




START HERE
























the sprite respond to clicks, key presses, and more!





 
























































38
UNIT 2
ANIMATIONS


































YOU ARE HERE
WHAT’S INCLUDED





0	1	3	4	5	6
PERFORMING SCRIPTS	42
BUILD-A-BAND	44
ORANGE SQUARE, PURPLE CIRCLE	46
IT’S ALIVE!	48
DEBUG IT!	50
MUSIC VIDEO	52
3493
UNIT 2
OVERVIEW

Kids have shared more than six million projects in the Scratch online community – animations, stories, games, and beyond – and one of our goals with the guide is to reflect this enormous diversity of creations. Within activities, we support opportunities to personalize and avoid presenting challenges that have only one “right” answer; across activities, we engage learners in a variety of genres. In this unit, we start to explore this creative diversity with a deep dive into animation, art, and music.

Creative diversity in Scratch has often been highlighted by learners. Here are a few quotes from learners who were asked, “If you had to explain what Scratch is to one of your friends, how would you describe it?”













KEY WORDS, CONCEPTS, & PRACTICES


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
+  be introduced to the computational thinking concepts of loops, events, and parallelism
+  become more familiar with the concepts of sequence
+  experiment with new blocks in the Events, Control, Sound, and
+  loops
+  events
+  parallelism
+  control

NOTES
+  broadcast
+  scripts
+  presentation mode
+  bitmap
+  vector
+  animation
+  gallery walk
Looks categories
+  explore various arts-themed Scratch programs
+  create an animated music video project
40
+  Many activities in this unit include elements of sound and music. We recommend having headphones readily available for students.

CHOOSE YOUR OWN ADVENTURE



Programming in Scratch is like directing theatre. In theatre, just as in Scratch, there are characters (sprites, in Scratch parlance), costumes, backdrops, scripts, and a stage. Scratch programming utilizes cues called “events”, which signal when things should occur in a project, such as: activating a project (when green flag clicked), triggering sprites’ actions (when this sprite clicked), or even sending a silent cue across sprites or backdrops (broadcast).

Inspired by the theatre metaphor, this unit’s arts-themed activities are designed to help students explore the computational concepts of loops, events, and parallelism, culminating in the design of personalized music videos.







POSSIBLE PATH




SESSION 1	SESSION 2	SESSION 3
SESSION 4
SESSION 4 & SESSION 5
 	 	 	

 	 	 	 	 	

Play the part of a
Create your own
What project can
Can you
Help!
How can you
sprite by acting
musical group by
you create that
animate it?
Can you debug
combine
out different
making interactive
includes an
Experiment with
these five Scratch
animation with
Scratch blocks and
instruments.
orange square
multiple costumes
programs?
music to create
scripts.

and a purple
to bring an image

your own


circle?
to life.

Scratch-inspired





music video?




41




PERFORMING SCRIPTS

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK










NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  This activity highlights the notion of “reset”, which is something Scratchers often struggle with as they get started. If they want things to start in a particular location, with a particular look, etc., students need to understand that they are completely responsible for programming those setup steps.
+  This activity can be useful for demonstrating the broadcast and when I receive block pair.
42
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	






BUILD-A-BAND

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK












NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  To share as a whole group, have students perform their Scratch instruments together to form a class band!
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


44


BUILD-A-BAND


In this activity, you will build your own music-inspired Scratch project by pairing sprites with sounds to design interactive instruments.



START HERE



! Create a sprite.
! Add sound blocks.
! Experiment with ways to make your instruments interactive.





 	 	




ORANGE SQUARE, PURPLE CIRCLE

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK












NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  If students have questions, remind them that they can open the Tips Window to learn more about specific blocks or different parts of the Scratch editor.
+  Scratch supports both bitmap and vector graphics. Help students navigate to the vector mode or bitmap mode button in the paint editor to design and manipulate different types of images and text.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	

46




ORANGE SQUARE, PURPLE CIRCLE


In this challenge, you’ll create a project that includes an orange square and a purple circle. What will you create?













IT’S ALIVE!
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS






REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  The difference between sprites and costumes is often a source of confusion for Scratchers. The metaphor of actors wearing multiple costumes can help clarify the difference.
+  Students can animate their own image by taking pictures of themselves using a camera or webcam.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


48


IT’S ALIVE!


In this activity, you will explore ways of bringing sprites, images, and ideas to life as an animation by programming a series of costume changes.





START HERE



! Choose a sprite.
! Add a different costume.



THINGS TO TRY	FINISHED?


! Try sketching your animation ideas on paper first – like a flipbook.
! Experiment with different blocks and
costumes until you find something you enjoy.
! Need some inspiration? Find projects in the Animation section of the Explore page.
+  Add your project to the It’s Alive studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475529
+  Challenge yourself to do more! Add more features to your project to make your animations look even more lifelike.
+  Help a neighbor!
+  Share your project with a partner and walk them through your design process.
+  Find an animated project you’re inspired by and remix it!




DEBUG	IT!
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK







NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Facilitate this activity in a whole group by having students act out the Debug It! programs in a similar way to the Performing Scripts activity, or introduce performing scripts as a new strategy for testing and debugging projects.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


50




DEBUG	IT!


In this activity, you will investigate what is going awry and find a solution for each of the five Debug It! challenges.







START HERE


! Go to the Unit 2 Debug It! Studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475539
! Test and debug each of the five debugging challenges in the studio.
! Write down your solution or remix the buggy program with your solution.


















! Make a list of possible bugs in the program.
! Keep track of your work! This can be a useful reminder of what you have already tried and point you toward what to try next.
!  Share and compare your problem finding and problem solving approaches with a neighbor until you find something that works for you!

+  Add code commentary by right clicking on blocks in your scripts. This can help others understand different parts of your program!
+  Discuss your testing and debugging practices with a partner –
make notes of the similarities and differences in your strategies.
+  Help a neighbor!




MUSIC VIDEO
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
4 5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  To further personalize projects, help students include a favorite song or record themselves singing or playing an instrument, using features under the Sounds tab.
+  Questions about remixing and plagiarism may arise during this activity. Take this opportunity to facilitate a discussion about giving credit and attribution using the Scratch FAQ about remixing: http://scratch.mit.edu/help/faq/#remix
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	

52


MUSIC VIDEO


In this project, you will explore ideas related to theatre, song, dance, music, drawing, illustration, photography, and animation to create a personalized music video!
































 	 	 	
























































54
UNIT 3
STORIES



































YOU ARE HERE
WHAT’S INCLUDED




0	1	2	4	5	6
CHARACTERS	58
CONVERSATIONS	60
SCENES	62
DEBUG IT!	64
CREATURE CONSTRUCTION	66
PASS IT ON	68
UNIT 3
OVERVIEW

In the introduction to his doctoral dissertation exploring remix culture, Andres Monroy-Hernandez (the lead designer of the initial version of the Scratch online community) included three quotes:

Building on other people’s work has been a longstanding practice in programming, and has only been amplified by network technologies that provide access to a wide range of other people’s work. An important goal of creative computing is to support connections between learners through reusing and remixing. The Scratch authoring environment and online community can support young designers in this key computational practice by helping them find ideas and code to build upon, enabling them to create more complex projects than they could have created on their own.

The activities in this unit offer initial ideas and strategies for cultivating a culture that supports reusing and remixing. How can you further support sharing and connecting?


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
KEY WORDS, CONCEPTS, & PRACTICES


Students will:
+  gain familiarity in and build understandings of the benefits of reusing and remixing while designing
+  develop greater fluency with computational concepts (events and parallelism) and practices (experimenting and iterating, testing and debugging, reusing and remixing)
+  reusing and remixing
+  make a block

NOTES
+  backpack
+  stage
+  pass-it-on story
+  pair programming
+  scratch screening
+  design demo
+  explore computational creation within the genre of stories by designing collaborative narratives


56
+  Reusing and remixing support the development of critical code-reading capacities and provoke important questions about ownership and authorship. Consider different strategies for how you might facilitate, discuss, and assess cooperative and collaborative work.

CHOOSE YOUR OWN ADVENTURE



This unit focuses on helping students develop their storytelling and remixing abilities through a variety of hands-on and off- computer design activities, providing opportunities for students to work collaboratively and build on the creative work of others. Building on initial experiences from Unit 2, the activities in this unit are designed to help students develop deeper fluency in the computational concepts of events and parallelism and the computational practices of experimenting and iterating and reusing and remixing. Each capacity-building activity is designed to help students build up storytelling projects by discovering new blocks and methods for programming interactions between sprites and backdrops, culminating in a Pass It On project.







POSSIBLE PATH




SESSION 1
SESSION 2	SESSION 3	SESSION 4
SESSION 5
 	 	 	

 	 	 	 	 	

Create your own
How do you
What's the
Help!
What can we
What can we
Scratch blocks
coordinate
difference
Can you debug
create by building
create by building
using Make a
interactions
between the Stage
these five Scratch
on others’ work?
on others’ work?
Block.
between sprites
and sprites?
programs?



using timing and





broadcasting?









57




CHARACTERS


S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK











NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  If students are struggling with figuring out how to use the Make a Block feature, invite them to explore how others implemented the feature by investigating the code of projects in the Characters studio.
+  Learn more about the Make a Block feature in this video tutorial: http://bit.ly/makeablock
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


58


CHARACTERS



Experiment with the Make a Block feature in Scratch! In this project, you will create your own blocks that define two behaviors for two different characters.






START HERE


! Choose from the library, paint, or upload two sprite characters.
! Click on the Make a Block button in the More Blocks category to create and name your block.
! Add blocks under the Define block to control what your custom block will do.
! Experiment with using your block to program your characters’ behaviors.
!  Repeat!







CONVERSATIONS

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK









NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  If students are having trouble understanding how to use the broadcast and when I receive block pair, invite them to explore the code of example projects in the Broadcast Examples studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/202853
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


60




CONVERSATIONS



In this activity, you'll explore different ways to program sprites to have conversations! Experiment with timing and explore using broadcast by remixing a joke project.



START HERE


! Look inside the Penguin Jokes project: http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/10015800
! Investigate the code to see how the wait and say blocks are used to coordinate the conversation.
! Remix the project to use the broadcast and when I receive blocks instead of wait blocks.













FINISHED?


! Brainstorm ideas with a neighbor! Generate a list of possible solutions and test them out together.
! Try using the broadcast and when I receive blocks in
different parts of your project.
! Explore projects in the Conversations studio to get inspiration for different ways to coordinate conversations between sprites.
+  Add your project to the Conversations studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475547
+  Challenge yourself to do more! Add other characters and
conversations.
+  Share your project with a neighbor and walk them through your process of exploration and design.
+  Help a neighbor!




SCENES
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK










NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  If students are having trouble figuring out how to switch backdrops, encourage them to tinker with blocks under the Looks category, especially the switch backdrop to, switch backdrop to and wait, and next backdrop blocks.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


62


SCENES

In this activity, you will create a project that experiments with backdrops, like a story with multiple scenes or a slideshow.






START HERE



! Choose from the library, paint, or upload multiple backdrops into your project.
! Experiment with blocks from the Looks and Events categories to initiate switching backdrops.
! Add scripts to the stage and sprites to coordinate what happens when the backdrop changes in your project!




DEBUG	IT!
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK







NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Being able to read others’ code is a valuable skill and is critical for being able to engage in the practices of reusing and remixing.
+  This activity is a great opportunity for pair programming.
Divide students into pairs to work on the debugging challenges.
+  Students can explain their code revisions by right-clicking on Scratch blocks to insert code comments.
64
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	





DEBUG	IT!


In this activity, you will investigate what is going awry and find a solution for each of the five Debug It! challenges.







START HERE


! Go to the Unit 3 Debug It! Studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475554
! Test and debug each of the five debugging challenges in the studio.
! Write down your solution or remix the buggy program with your solution.






FINISHED?


! Make a list of possible bugs in the program.
! Keep track of your work! This can be a useful reminder of what you have already tried and point you toward what to try next.
!  Share and compare your problem finding and problem solving approaches with a neighbor until you find something that works for you!
+  Add code commentary by right clicking on blocks in your scripts. This can help others understand different parts of your program!
+  Discuss your testing and debugging practices with a partner, and
make note of the similarities and differences in your strategies.
+  Help a neighbor!




CREATURE CONSTRUCTION
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK









NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  This activity is a perfect warm-up activity for the Pass It On project! We recommend facilitating Creature Construction directly before Pass It On.
+  Optionally, have students sign their names at the bottom of each creature drawing they worked on to identify the contributing artists.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


66
 	























:\	---
va	' r	r	/	-
f	/	)	r	J	r

.	.	Ï-\	v"	V /	;{




PASS	IT ON
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
4 5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Consider organizing your Scratch screening as an event! Invite students from other classes to the viewing, offer snacks and drinks, or host the event in an auditorium or room with a large wall or screen for displaying projects.
+  Introduce students to the backpack (located at the bottom of the Scratch project editor) as another way to remix projects. Learn more about this tool in the Backpack video tutorial: http://bit.ly/scratchbackpack
68
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


PASS	IT ON


In this project, you will start developing an animated story project, and then you will pass the story on to others to remix, extend, or reimagine!





START HERE


! Work on a story project that focuses on characters, scene, plot, or whatever element excites you.
! After 10 minutes, save and share your project online.
! Rotate & extend another story project by remixing it.
!  Repeat!

THINGS TO TRY




























































70
UNIT 4
GAMES



































YOU ARE HERE
WHAT’S INCLUDED


0	1	2	3	4	5	6
DREAM GAME LIST	74
STARTER GAMES	76
SCORE	80
EXTENSIONS	82
INTERACTIONS	84
DEBUG IT!	86
71
UNIT 4
OVERVIEW




Personalization is an important guiding principle in the design of the creative computing experience. By “personalization”, we mean both connecting to personal interests and acknowledging that personal interests can vary considerably. There are many ways of knowing and doing – and exploring these multiple ways can help support interest, motivation, and persistence among young learners. In this unit, learners explore some of the advanced concepts and challenging problems associated with game design. An advanced concept or challenging problem can be made more accessible if rooted in activities that are personally meaningful. As an example of the power of context, we turn to a story shared by Mitch Resnick – the director of the Scratch project at MIT.

A few years ago I was at one of our Computer Clubhouse after school centers and I saw a 13-year-old boy working on creating his own game. He was able to control a character, in this case, a fish. He wanted the game to keep track of the score, so you could see how many little fish had been eaten by the big fish, but he didn’t know how.

I saw this as an opportunity to introduce the idea of variables. I showed this to him and he immediately saw how he could use this block to keep track of how many fish had been eaten in his game. He took the block and put it in the script right where the big fish eats the little fish. He quickly tried it. Sure enough, every time the big fish ate a little fish, the score goes up by 1.

I think that he really got a deep understanding of variables because he really wanted to make use of it. That's one of our overall goals of Scratch. It's not just about variables, but for all types of concepts. We see that kids get a much deeper understanding of the concepts they learn when they are making use of the concepts in a meaningful and motivating way.





KEY WORDS, CONCEPTS, & PRACTICES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
+  be introduced to the computational concepts of conditionals, operators, and data (variables and lists)
+  become more familiar with the computational practices of
+  abstracting and modularizing
+  conditionals
+  operators

NOTES
+  data
+  variables and lists
+  sensing
+  feedback fair
+  arcade day
+  puzzle jar
+  brain dump
experimenting and iterating, testing and debugging, reusing and remixing, and abstracting and modularizing by building and extending a self-directed maze, pong, or scrolling game project
+  identify and understand common game mechanics
72
+  Many new concepts are explored in this unit, so we’ve included
added support in the form of example project studios, new programming puzzles for extra practice, and starter game projects that we encourage you to remix and reuse as needed.

CHOOSE YOUR OWN ADVENTURE



In this  unit, learners  will become  game designers  and experience creating their own game project. Guided by the activities in this unit, students will be introduced to game mechanics and game development while building understandings of computational concepts (conditionals, operators, data) and computational practices (abstracting and modularizing).

You could get students started on their game projects with the Starter Games activity and then support further development through other activities. From learning common game mechanics such as keeping score and side-scrolling, to the creation of multiplayer games (e.g., Pong), Unit 4 activities offer students multiple opportunities to practice game development.






POSSIBLE PATH




SESSION 1
SESSIONS 1 - 5
SESSION 2	SESSION 3
SESSION 4
SESSION 5
 	 	 	 	 	

 	 	 	 	 	

What do all games
How can you use
How can you add
What are different
Tackle nine
Help!
have in common?
Scratch to build an
score to a game
ways of extending
Scratch
Can you debug

interactive game?
using variables?
and increasing
programming
these five Scratch



difficulty in a
puzzles.
programs?



game?







73




DREAM GAME
LIST

ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION





S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S






RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK









NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Invite students to refer back to this dream game list while programming games in other Unit 4 activities.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	


74



 	


















Cft1e





STARTER GAMES




ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
4 5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S




RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  To celebrate and share final game creations, we recommend hosting an Arcade Day. Final game projects are placed in presentation mode; students walk around and play each other’s games.
+  The Scrolling game option introduces cloning. Help students learn more about the cloning blocks with the Cloning handout from Unit 5 Advanced Features.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	

76


MAZE



In this project, you will create a game. This game includes interactions between sprites, score, and levels. You move a sprite from the start of a maze to the end without touching the walls.




START HERE



! Draw a maze-like background and use different colors for the walls and end-of-maze marker.
! Add a sprite.
! Make your game interactive!






These scripts give the player control over sprite movement in the maze.


THINGS TO TRY




This tells your sprite where to begin and marks the start of the maze.


This will cause your sprite to bounce off the blue walls of the maze.






This tells the end-of-maze sprite that players win when the ball touches this sprite.




 	 	


PONG


In this project, you will create a game. This game includes interactions between sprites, score, and levels. The game is similar to the classic game of pong, where the goal is to keep the sprite from getting past you.




START HERE


! Create two sprites: a paddle for the user to control and a ball the user will be playing with.
! Make your paddle sprite interactive.
! Bring your game to life!



THINGS TO TRY





Interacts with the walls
 	  Interacts with the paddle


These control the ball - if touching the paddle or a wall, it continues moving. If touching red (meaning the ball moved past the paddle) the game ends.





+  Add your project to the Games Studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/ studios/487504
+  Swap games with a partner and walk each other through your creations.
SCROLLING


In this project, you will create a game. This game includes interactions between sprites, score, and levels. The game is similar to Flappy Bird, where the goal is to keep an object from falling to the ground or touching certain objects.



START HERE
! Create two sprites: one for the player to control (helicopter) and one to avoid (gliding bars).
! Make the helicopter interactive.
! Bring your game to life by adding scripts to make the gliding bars scroll across the stage!








Controls sprite movement

THINGS TO TRY


This creates clones, which are used in the script below to make the bars scroll across the screen:


Causes sprite to constantly fall downward



Specifies when the game ends





+  Add your project to the Games Studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/ studios/487504
+  Swap games with a partner and walk each other through your creations.





SCORE
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK









NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Encourage students to clarify their understanding of variables by exploring code from sample projects in the Score examples studio.
+  Variables are an important mathematical and computational concept. Students are taught about variables in their math and science classes, but many students have a difficult time learning them. Games are one way to make the usefulness of variables more concrete.
80
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	





SCORE

Fish Chomp is a game where players try to catch as many fish as they can by guiding a sprite with the mouse. In this activity, you will remix Fish Chomp by adding a score with variables.




START HERE






























! Not sure how to work with variables? Check out this project for more information: http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/2042755
!  Or take a look at this video: http://youtu.be/uXq379XkhVw
! Explore and study code in games that use score to learn more about creating variables and incorporating score into a project.
+  Add your project to the Fish Chomp Remix studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475615
+  Challenge yourself to do more! How can you
use score to add diffi ulty to your game design?
+  Find a game you are inspired by and remix it!




EXTENSIONS
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK










NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  To provide more scaffolding for students needing extra support, we suggest walking through one extension sample program (e.g., levels) as a class and helping students add the extension to their game projects.
+  The backpack tool is one way students can incorporate parts of the extension projects into their starter games. Learn more about backpack at http://bit.ly/scratchbackpack
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	

82


EXTENSIONS
+ SCORE http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/1940443
Demonstrates how to set and change a score. Receive 10 points every time the Scratch cat is clicked.

+ LEVELS http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/1940453
Demonstrates how to change levels. Score increases by 1 every time the space bar is pressed. Level increases by 1 for every 10 points.

Get into game design by adding extended features within your Scratch project! Choose at least one (or more!) of the following extensions and add it to your previously started maze, pong, or scrolling games.
+ TIMER http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/1940445
Demonstrates how to use a timer. Use the mouse to navigate the Scratch cat to Gobo.

+ ENEMIES http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/1940450
Demonstrates how to add an enemy. Avoid the tennis ball by using the up and down arrow keys.


START HERE
! Go to the Extensions studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475619
! Choose one (or more) of the extensions to explore.
! Incorporate your choice into your previously started game projects!
+ REWARDS http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/1940456 Demonstrates how to collect items. Use the arrow keys to move the Scratch cat around to collect quest items.

+ MOUSE http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/25192659
Demonstrates how to program the mouse to control game play. Move the mouse to move the paddle.

+ RESTART http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/25192935
Demonstrates how to make a button to restart the game. Click on the RESTART button to restart.

+ MENU http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/25192991
Demonstrates how to display a menu screen at the beginning of the game. Click START or DIRECTIONS on the menu screen.

+ MULTIPLAYER http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/25192711 Demonstrates how to add another player to the game. Player 1 uses the arrow keys to navigate Pico through the maze, and player 2 uses the
W, A, S, D keys to navigate Nano through the maze.




INTERACTIONS

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK








NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Choose particular challenges that highlight new blocks or concepts that you would like students to explore. Or let students invent their own interaction puzzle prompts.
+  Repurpose these puzzles as an unstructured activity for students who finish other activities early or as a warm-up challenge. Create a puzzle jar: print out, cut, fold, and place copies of each puzzle description in a jar. Then, let students pick puzzles from the jar to solve.
84
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	





INTERACTIONS

 	

Tackle these nine puzzles that engage some of the more advanced concepts in Scratch related to interactivity. Each of these challenges has several possible solutions.




START HERE



! Create a Scratch program for each of the nine interactivity puzzles.






















! Before getting started in Scratch, write down ideas in your design journal for possible ways of programming each of the interactivity puzzles.
! Work with a neighbor. Collaborating with a partner can be a great way to solve problems and gain new perspectives on ways of programming in Scratch!
+  Add each of the projects you create to the Interaction Studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/487213
+  Help a neighbor!
+  Discuss your strategies for approaching each puzzle with a partner. Take notes about the similarities and differences in your methods.




DEBUG	IT!
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK







NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  This activity provides an opportunity to check in with students who might need some additional attention or support, particularly around the concepts of conditionals (e.g., if), operators (e.g., arithmetic, logical), and data (e.g., variables, lists).
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86




DEBUG	IT!


In this activity, you will investigate what is going awry and find a solution for each of the five Debug It! challenges.







START HERE



! Go to the Unit 4 Debug It! Studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/475634/
! Test and debug each of the five debugging challenges in the studio.
! Write down your solution or remix the buggy program with your solution.


















! Make a list of possible bugs in the program.
! Keep track of your work! This can be a useful reminder of what you have already tried and point you toward what to try next.
!  Share and compare your problem finding and problem solving approaches with a neighbor until you find something that works for you!
+  Add code commentary by right clicking on blocks in your scripts. This can help others understand different parts of your program!
+  Discuss your testing and debugging practices with a partner.
Make note of the similarities and differences in your strategies.
+  Help a neighbor!
























































88
UNIT 5
DIVING	DEEPER



































YOU ARE HERE
WHAT’S INCLUDED


0	1	2	3	4	5	6
KNOW WANT LEARN	92
ROUND TWO	94
ADVANCED CONCEPTS	96
HARDWARE & EXTENSIONS	100
ACTIVITY DESIGN	102
MY DEBUG IT!	106
89
UNIT 5
OVERVIEW





After the release of the previous version of the guide, a common piece of feedback that we received from teachers was that they (and the learners they support) wanted more “catch-up” time, time to linger, revisit, and extend the ideas and projects they had created in previous units. In response, we added this “Diving Deeper” unit.

Whether pushing ahead with advanced concepts and practices or revisiting previous experiences, this is an opportunity for learners to engage in a moment of contemplation and reflection. What isn’t as clear as it could be? What do they still want to know about Scratch? How might others help them – and how might they help others?

This is also an opportunity for you, as educator, to engage in similar acts of contemplation and reflection. What has surprised you? What has made you uncomfortable? What would you want to do differently next time? Why?




LEARNING OBJECTIVES
KEY WORDS, CONCEPTS, & PRACTICES
Learners will:
+  reflect on past experiences to self-assess current learning goals and needs
+  create a self-remix by extending a previously started project
+  be introduced to various hardware extensions that connect
+  video sensing
+  cloning

NOTES
+  peer interviews
+  hardware
+  extensions
Scratch to the physical world
+  gain more fluency in computational concepts and practices by exploring the newest Scratch features (video sensing, cloning)
+  experiment with designing learning experiences for others


90

+  Not finding what you’re looking for? Feel free to remix, reuse, and reimagine any of the activities in this guide to make it work best for you and your learners.
+  Search for lesson plans, activities, and resources designed for a specific curricular area on the ScratchEd website: http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu

CHOOSE YOUR OWN ADVENTURE



Rather than focusing on a particular theme or genre like the three previous units, this unit is intended to create a space for reviewing and reflecting on prior work. This unit’s activities are especially fl xible, diving deeper into creative computing by revisiting challenges, extending skills, or refining practices.

Begin by inviting students to review their past work and engage in self-assessment of their learning goals in the Know Want Learn activity.

Then, encourage students to dive deeper into Scratch by choosing which follow-up activities to pursue.







POSSIBLE PATH




SESSION 1
SESSION 2
SESSION 3
SESSION 4
SESSION 5
 	 	 	

 	 	 	 	 	

What do you
Remix a past
Creating with
Create a project
Design a learning
Create your own
know?
project, go back to
Scratch can go
that explores
experience for
Debug It! program
What do you
a missed activity,
beyond what
video sensing
others to try.
and see if others
want to know?
or challenge
happens on the
or cloning.

can solve it.
What have you
yourself to learn
screen.



learned?
something new.









91




KNOW WANT LEARN
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Help students find and use other resources during their research such as leveraging knowledgeable peers, posing questions to family members and friends, or posting a question in the Scratch discussion forums.
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92
KNOW WANT
LEARN

WHAT DO I KNOW?



What do you know about creative computing & scratch? What do you want to know next? This activity is an opportunity for you to consider which areas of Scratch you feel comfortable navigating (What do I know?) and which areas you would like to explore further (What do I want to know?). Use different resources around you to investigate what you want to know, and then share your findings (What did I learn?).

Reflecting on your design experiences so far, write down what you know about Scratch and creative computing.











WHAT DO I WANT TO KNOW?
Based on your personal interests, generate a list of things you want to find out more about or discover next.











WHAT DID I LEARN?

Gather resources to investigate items from the list you created above, and then share what you learned from your research.




ROUND TWO

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK















NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Invite students to review their design journals and Scratch profiles to reflect back on previous work and activities.
+  Encourage students to review their Unit 1 My Studio inspiration
projects for ideas.
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94






























25





ADVANCED CONCEPTS
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK






NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Students who want to explore the video sensing feature will require a computer with a webcam.
+  Remind students that the backpack tool can be used to
borrow and remix code from example projects.
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96
••


VIDEO SENSING	 
Did you know that you can make your Scratch projects interactive through a webcam? Explore this advanced Scratch concept by creating a project that incorporates the video sensing feature.




START HERE



!  Open an existing Scratch project or start a new project to add video sensing.
! Check out blocks for video sensing in the Sensing category.
! Experiment with video on, turn video, and set video transparency to blocks to program your project to sense video motion.


CLONING


Cloning is an easy way to create multiples of the same sprite. You can use cloning to make many objects and create cool effects in a project.

Explore this advanced Scratch concept by creating a project that incorporates the cloning feature.

START HERE	
!  Open an existing Scratch project or start a new project to experiment with cloning.
! Check out blocks for cloning in the Control category.	
! Experiment with the blocks to create clones of your
sprite. Define behaviors for what your cloned sprites will do.


















! If you can’t see your clone initially, check if the original sprite is in the same location – it might be covering the clone! Program your original sprite or the clone to move or go to different locations so you can see them.
! Stuck? That’s okay! Explore some of the other projects in the Cloning Studio to see how they use cloning or search in the Tips Window to learn more about the Create Clone and When I start as a Clone blocks.
+  Add your project to the Cloning studio: http://scratch.mit.edu/studios/201437
+  Add cloning to one of your past projects!
+  Help a neighbor!
+  Remix a project in the Cloning studio.




HARDWARE & EXTENSIONS
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK






NOTES	NOTES TO SELF











100
+  Make this a group-wide activity! Using the LEGO WeDo and Scratch, challenge students to connect their projects to create a chain of reactions in the style of a Rube Goldberg machine. See this video for an example: http://bit.ly/ScratchChainReaction
+  Activate the Scratch blocks that control hardware extensions by clicking on the Add an Extension button located under the More Blocks category in the Scratch project editor.
!  	
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ACTIVITY DESIGN











S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK





NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Students particularly interested in supporting others’ learning can be great candidates for becoming peer mentors during class or at an afterschool or lunchtime Scratch Club.
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102
ACTIVITY
DESIGN


How can you help others learn more about Scratch and creative computing? Design an activity that helps other people learn Scratch. It can be an off-computer activity (like Creature Construction), project idea (like Build-a-Band), or challenge activity (like Debug It!). You could even develop a new type of activity or handout! Brainstorm using the questions below, and then use the activity and handout planners to give more detail.

WHO IS THIS FOR?

Who is your audience? Who do you want to help learn more about Scratch and creative computing?












WHAT WILL THEY LEARN?
What are the learning goals? What new things do you hope people will learn from using your activity?











WHAT DO THEY NEED?

What supplies will people need? What other types of support will help people successfully engage in your activity?




(TITLE)












S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
__ –__   MINUTES





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK






NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



(TIPS AND TRICKS)
+ 

+ 

+ 
!  	
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START HERE



 	




MY DEBUG IT!

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK







NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Remind students to include a challenge description in the notes of the project page on the Scratch website.
+  Got extra time or need a warm-up activity? Let students
exercise their problem-seeking and problem-solving skills on other contributed debug-it programs in the My Debug It! studio.
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106




MY DEBUG IT!


In this activity, you will create your own Debug It! challenge for others to investigate, solve, and remix.






START HERE


! Reflect back on the different kinds of bugs you’ve encountered in creating and debugging your own
























































108
UNIT 6
HACKATHON


































YOU ARE HERE
WHAT’S INCLUDED





0	1	2	3	4	5
UNIT 6








































LEARNING OBJECTIVES
KEY WORDS, CONCEPTS, & PRACTICES
Students will:
+  be introduced to the format of a hackathon event
+  demonstrate knowledge of computational concepts (sequence, loops, events, parallelism, conditionals, operators, data) and practices (experimenting and iterating, testing and debugging,
+  hackathon
+  design sprint

NOTES
+  project pitch
+  unfocus group
+  showcase





110
reusing and remixing, abstracting and modularizing) by defining, developing, and presenting a personally meaningful, self-directed project
+  have multiple opportunities for collaboration by working in peer teams, sharing skills, and giving and receiving multiple rounds of feedback

+  This unit can accommodate either independent or collaborative group projects. Pick one option or allow students to choose.

WHAT IS A HACKATHON?


“Hack” has a negative connotation to some – but it has a long history of standing for playfulness, curiosity, persistence, and creativity. One of our favorite definitions frames “hack” as “an appropriate application of ingenuity”. With this definition, what better capacity for young learners than learning how to “hack”?

A hackathon takes the playful ingenuity of hacking – and situates it in an intensely focused and time-limited context. In this unit, learners will brainstorm an idea, develop a project, and showcase a final prototype using an iterative plan-make-share cycle.

Hackathons provide excellent opportunities for learners to invent their own personally meaningful and relevant projects to work on, which can be developed as independent final projects or in collaborative teams. It is a chance for students to demonstrate their knowledge in Scratch, expand upon current skills, and develop and test ideas within a collaborative, creative, flexible, and playful learning environment.










Throughout the duration of the hackathon, students will engage in iterative cycles in which they PLAN, MAKE, and SHARE. This iterative cycle encourages students to engage in meaningful acts of ideation, creation, and reflection.




 	 	

     P	L	A	N
What do you want to work on? Brainstorm ideas and prepare a plan of action!
     M	A	K	E
Design and develop project creations with resources and help from others.
S H A R E
Share your project with others and gather feedback to guide your next steps!


111




The hackathon-inspired activities for this unit are designed to challenge students to build up a more complex project within an open-ended and collaborative learning environment. All of the important culture-building we’ve been doing – encouraging risk-taking and persistence, recognizing failures as learning opportunities, focusing on process over product, and cultivating a culture of cooperation and fun – culminates in this unit.

To help you get started, we have included a suggested sequence of activities that follow the plan-make-share design cycle.



PROJECT PITCH
PLANNING PROMPTS
DESIGN SPRINT

START HERE

Pitch your ideas, interests, or skills to form a project team!

Before diving into your project, take some time to prepare a plan of action.

Dive into your project creation with this open- ended design sprint.



DESIGN SPRINT
PROJECT CHECK-IN
PROJECT FEEDBACK


Keep making progress with your project as you move into the second round of design.
Take a moment to reflect on your project feedback and regroup before continuing.






PROJECT
What is going well in your project and what still needs adjustment?






DESIGN SPRINT
UNFOCUS
GROUP
CHECK-IN



Formulate and share project feedback with your critique group.

Take a moment to reflect on your project feedback and regroup before continuing.
Final round of design!


SHOWCASE

SHOWCASE PREP





112
An event to celebrate all of your hard work and finished projects!
Use this time to make last-minute project edits and to prepare for the hackathon showcase.





PROJECT PITCH



ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION












S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S

 	



RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK










NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Students can be enormously valuable in providing support and guidance to each other throughout all of the Scratch sessions, and particularly during the hackathon sessions. Encouraging young people to share their knowledge and skills with others makes things easier for the facilitator, but can also significantly deepen creators’ learning and understanding.
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114
PROJECT
PITCH


Use the prompts below to brainstorm ideas for projects you’re interested in working on during the hackathon. You will have 30 seconds to pitch your ideas, interests, and skills to the rest of the group!



MY FAVORITE PROJECT

What has been your favorite project to work on so far? What made this project stand out for you?











MY HACKATHON PROJECT IDEA

What kinds of projects are you interested in creating next?











MY SKILLS AND INTERESTS

What knowledge, skills, or talents would you like to contribute to a project?




PROJECT PLANNING
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK








NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Although planning is helpful, it shouldn’t be all-consuming or the only way of doing things. Different students will want and need to plan and tinker to different extents – and different phases of the project will require different approaches. Multiple design and development styles should be encouraged and accommodated.
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116





...,..,
ri. • •
\ ,.....
PROJECT
PLANNING


Use the prompts below to start thinking about the elements needed to develop your project.







Describe the project you want to create.








List the steps needed in order to create your project.













 	
PROJECT
SKETCHES


Use the space below to draw sketches of what your project will look like!



MY PROJECT SKETCHES

 	
What’s happening? What are the important elements?	What’s happening? What are the important elements?







 	
What’s happening? What are the important elements?	What’s happening? What are the important elements?




DESIGN SPRINT



S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK












NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  All design activities are constrained – by time, by resources, by our own abilities at a given moment – and compromises may need to be made. The open-ended designing sessions are a great opportunity to have conversations with students about the essential elements of their projects. What are the most important aspects of the projects? What can reasonably be accomplished in the remaining time?
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120





PROJECT FEEDBACK
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK












NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Different people will provide different perspectives on the project-in-progress. Create opportunities for learners to get feedback from a variety of sources, including themselves!
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122
PROJECT
FEEDBACK








FEEDBACK BY
[RED] What is something that doesn’t work or could be improved?
[YELLOW]  What  is  something  that  is confusing or could be done differently?
[GREEN] What is something that works well or you really like about the project?

















PARTS OF THE PROJECT THAT MIGHT BE HELPFUL TO THINK ABOUT:
+  Clarity: Did you understand what the project is supposed to do?
+  Features: What features does the project have? Does the project work as expected?
+  Appeal: How engaging is the project? Is it interactive, original, sophisticated, funny, or interesting? How did you feel as you interacted with it?




PROJECT CHECK-IN
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
15 – 3 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK










NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  The Project Check-In is a short planning activity. We recommend using it as a warm-up activity at the beginning of each Design Sprint session.
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124
PROJECT
CHECK-IN


Discuss your design progress with your team and outline a plan for next steps based on feedback.





 	



 	




UNFOCUS GROUP
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
3 0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK















NOTES	NOTES TO SELF











126
+  Help students get creative in researching and discovering feedback sources. Is there a local game design company that might be interested in helping? Could projects be shared with students from another school?
+  If unfocus group members are not available to be interviewed during the session (e.g., teachers, parents, siblings, community members), you can organize this activity for outside of class time or assign it as homework.
!  	
!  	
!  	
!  	
UNFOCUS
GROUP





+  What kinds of people might be able to offer you a unique perspective on your project?

+  Who are two unfocus group members you plan to share your project draft with?




Share your project with your unfocus group and observe their reactions.
+  What are they getting stuck on?
+  Are they interacting with your project the way you imagined?
+  Are they doing anything surprising?



After you observe, interview your group about their experience.
+  What feedback did you receive from your interview?
+  What suggestions, if any, do you plan to incorporate into your project next?




SHOWCASE PREP
S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
0 – 4 5    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK












NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Students may be feeling anxious or stressed about completing their projects. This is an opportunity to remind them that: (1) this experience is just a waypoint on their paths as computational creators, and (2) some types of stress can be good, helping us to focus on our goals and get things done!
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128
PROJECT REFLECTIONS


Use the prompts below to reflect on your design process.




What is your project?
How does it work? How did you come up with the idea?













What was your process for developing the project?
What was interesting, challenging, and surprising? Why? What did you learn?










NOW WHAT?

What are you most proud of about your project? What would you change?




SHOWCASE

S  U  G  G  E  S  T  E  D     T  I  M  E  
5 – 6 0    M I N U T E S





ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
RESOURCES

 	



REFLECTION PROMPTS





REVIEWING STUDENT WORK











NOTES	NOTES TO SELF



+  Sharing can take place in a variety of ways: individuals presenting to the entire group, concurrent subsets of students presenting, live demos, accessing projects from the web, etc.
+  Project portfolios, design journals, final project feedback handouts, and final project reflection handouts are a few (of many different possible) types of artifacts that may be collected for assessment purposes. (See Appendix.)
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132
APPENDIX





















































133
























































134
GLOSSARY
A guide to the key words, concepts, and practices in the curriculum guide:

Visit the Scratch help pages at http://scratch.mit.edu/help or the community-generated Scratch Wiki at http://wiki.scratch.mit.edu for additional, Scratch-specific terminology.

abstracting and modularizing: The computational practice of exploring connections between the whole and the parts. animation: An illusion of continuous motion created by the rapid display of a sequence of still images with incremental differences. arcade day: A strategy for sharing student work and whole group activity. Students place their finished projects in Presentation Mode
and then walk around and engage with each other’s work.
backdrop: One out of possibly many frames, or backgrounds, of the Stage.
backpack: A Scratch feature that can be used to conveniently transfer media and/or scripts between projects.
bitmap: An image that is defined by a two-dimensional array (grid) of discrete color values (a.k.a. “pixels”). Contrast with vector graphics.
broadcast: A message that is sent through the Scratch program, activating receiving scripts.
cloning: A Scratch feature that allows a sprite to create duplicates of itself while the project is running.
computational concepts: The concepts designers engage with as they program, such as sequence, loops, conditionals, events, parallelism, operators, and data.
computational perspectives: The broader perspectives that designers may form about world around them through computing – such as expressing themselves, connecting with others, and posing questions about technology’s role in the world.
computational practices: The distinctive habits of mind that programmers develop as they work, such as experimenting and iterating, testing and debugging, remixing and reusing work, and abstracting and modularizing.
conditionals: The computational concept of making decisions based on conditions (e.g., current variable values).
control: One of the ten categories of Scratch blocks. They are color-coded gold, and are used to control scripts.
costume: One out of possibly many “frames” or alternate appearances of a sprite. A sprite can change its look to any of its costumes.
critique group: A group of designers who share ideas and test projects-in-progress with one another in order to get feedback on how to further develop their projects.
data: The computational concept of storing, retrieving, and updating values.
design demo: An activity in which students are invited to present their work to the class and demonstrate how they implemented a particular block, skill, or design strategy within their project.
design sprint: A specified amount of time dedicated to working intensely on developing projects.
events: The computational concept of one thing causing another thing to happen.
experimenting and iterating: The computational practice of developing a little bit, then trying it out, then developing some more.
feedback fair: A sharing activity in which half of your students stay in their seats with their projects open while the other half walks around exploring projects, asking questions, and giving feedback. Once complete, the students then switch sides and start the process over.






































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136
gallery walk: A sharing activity in which students put their projects in presentation mode and then walk around and explore each other’s projects.
hardware and extensions: Supplemental materials that connect the digital world of Scratch with the physical world. Examples of hardware extensions include: LEGO WeDo, PicoBoard, and MaKey MaKey.
interactive collage: A Scratch project that incorporates a variety of clickable sprites.
looks: One of the ten categories of Scratch blocks. They are color-coded purple, and are used to control a sprite's appearance.
loops: The computational concept of running the same sequence multiple times.
make a block: A feature found within the More Blocks category that allows students to create and define their own custom block or procedure.
motion: One of the ten categories of Scratch blocks. They are color-coded medium-blue, and are used to control a sprite’s movement.
operators: The computational concept of supporting mathematical and logical expressions.
paint editor: Scratch's built-in image editor. Many Scratchers create their own sprites, costumes, and backdrops using it. pair programming: A programming methodology in which developers pair up and work side-by-side on a project. parallelism: The computational concept of making things happen at the same time.
pass-it-on story: A Scratch project that is started by a pair of people, and then passed on to two other pairs to extend and reimagine.
peer interviews: A sharing activity in which students take turns interviewing one another about their processes of reflection, self- assessment, and research.
pitch: An activity in which students either announce a project idea in order to recruit other team members, or promote their interests, skills, and talents in order to be recruited by other teams.
presentation mode: A display mode in Scratch that allows projects to be viewed at an enlarged size. It is accessed by pressing the button on the top left of the Scratch program. This mode is also called full screen mode or enlarged screen.
profile page: A page on the Scratch online community dedicated to displaying information about a Scratch user, such as projects they have created or bookmarked (a.k.a. “favorited”).
project editor: A feature of the Scratch online community that allows projects to be modified. This includes the script area (where scripts are assembled), the sprite area (where sprites can be manipulated), and the stage area (where sprites are positioned and where backgrounds can be accessed).
red, yellow, green: A reflection and sharing activity in which individuals identify aspects of their projects as not going well or still needing work (“red”), confusing or contentious (“yellow”), or working well (“green”).
remix: A creative work that is derived from an original work (or from another remix). A remix typically introduces new content or stylistic elements, while retaining a degree of similarity to the original work.
reusing and remixing: The computational practice of making something by building on existing projects or ideas.
Scratch screening: A sharing activity in which students gather around to observe each other’s Scratch projects.
scripts: One or more Scratch blocks connected together to form a sequence. Scripts begin with an event block that responds to input (e.g., mouse click, broadcast). When triggered, additional blocks connected to the event block are executed one at a time.
sensing: One of the ten categories of Scratch blocks. They are color-coded light-blue, and are used to detect different forms of input (e.g., mouse position) or program state (e.g., sprite position).
sequence: The computational concept of identifying a series of steps for a task.
showcase: A strategy for sharing in which students present their final projects to others and reflect on their design processes and computational creation experiences.
sound: An audio file that can be played in a Scratch project, available by importing from Scratch's built-in sound library, or creating a new recording. Sounds are played by using sound blocks, which control a sound's volume, tempo, and more.
sprite: A media object that performs actions on the stage in a Scratch project.
stage: The background of a Scratch project. The stage can have scripts, backdrops (costumes), and sounds, similar to a sprite.
studio: A user-created gallery in the Scratch online community that can be used to highlight projects contributed by one or many users.
testing and debugging: The computational practice of making sure things work – and finding and solving problems when they arise.
theatre metaphor: A way of describing the design of Scratch that emphasizes its intentional similarity to theatre, with actors (sprites), costumes, backdrops, scripts, and a stage.
tips window: Built directly into the Project Editor, the Tips Window is a form of getting help in Scratch.
unfocus group: An activity in which students share their projects-in-progress and request feedback from a diverse collection of people.
variables and lists: A changeable value or collection of values recorded in Scratch’s memory. Variables can store one value at a time, while lists can store multiple values.
vector graphic: An image that is defined by a collection of geometric shapes (e.g., circles, rectangles) and colors. Contrast with bitmap.
video sensing: A Scratch feature that makes use of video from a webcam to detect motion or display video input on the stage.

































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STANDARDS
The activities in this guide make connections to several different K-12 curriculum standards, including the Common Core State Standards, the CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards, and ISTE NETS. We have included connections to Common Core Standards as an example.

For more connections, please visit the guide site at http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu/guide

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics 2010
http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_Standards.pdf
+  Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them – Many guide activities engage students in solving debugging challenges, which encourage students to discover different ways of finding and solving problems. Example activity: Unit 1 - 4 Debug It!
+  Reason Abstractly and Quantitatively – Students can express abstract concepts and demonstrate their understandings of quantitative
relationships such as variables through visual representations designed in Scratch. Example activity: Unit 4 Score
+  Model with Mathematics – Certain activities in the guide challenge students to represent previously learned equations, data comparisons, or other mathematical relationships as Scratch programs. Example activity: Unit 4 Interactions
+  Attend to precision – On- and off-screen activities help students recognize the importance of attending to detail when specifying instructions or a sequence of code intended to elicit a particular outcome. Example activity: Unit 1 Programmed to Dance
+  Look for and Make Use of Structure – Looking through scripts during a debugging challenge, reading through someone else’s project code while remixing a project, or reviewing work to build up more complex programs can engage students in looking closely to discern repeated patterns or structure within their own or others’ Scratch programs. Example activity: Unit 3 Conversations

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy 2010
http://www.corestandards.org/wp-content/uploads/ELA_Standards.pdf
+  They demonstrate independence. – Most activities and projects in the guide are designed to be self-directed or can be easily adjusted to accommodate independent work, although collaborative projects and group work are encouraged. Example activity: Unit 1 About Me
+  They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline. – Students are made aware of varying types of audience, task, purpose, and discipline when sharing projects to the worldwide Scratch online community or designing projects and activities for others. Example activity: Unit 5 Activity Design
+  They comprehend as well as critique. – A variety of feedback exercises and collaborative projects engage students in sharing works-in- progress, asking questions, and exchanging constructive critique. Example activity: Unit 0 Critique Group
+  They use technology and digital media strategically and capably. – During self-directed activities, students learn to navigate to different parts of the Scratch website to develop projects, search for inspiration, connect with others, and pursue personal learning goals. Example activity: Unit 5 Know Want Learn
+  They come to understand other perspectives and cultures. – In remixing others’ projects, students need to read, understand, and interpret the code and intention of work that is not their own. When building up collaborative projects, students learn to cooperate, compromise, and share work with others. Example Activity: Unit 3 Pass It On











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COMPUTATIONAL THINKING
Over the past several years, we have been captivated by “computational thinking” as a way to describe the learning and development that take place with Scratch. In this section, we share: (1) our definition of computational thinking as a set of concepts, practices, and perspectives, (2) an instrument for assessing student proficiency with computational practices, and (3) a self-reflection instrument to help teachers assess how they support computational practices in the classroom.

These definitions and instruments were developed in collaboration with Wendy Martin, Francisco Cervantes, and Bill Tally from Education Development Center’s Center for Children & Technology, and Mitch Resnick from MIT Media Lab. Additional computational thinking resources are available at http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu/ct

COMPUTATIONAL CONCEPTS

CONCEPT
DESCRIPTION
sequence
identifying a series of steps for a task
loops
running the same sequence multiple times
parallelism
making things happen at the same time
events
one thing causing another thing to happen
conditionals
making decisions based on conditions
operators
support for mathematical and logical expressions
data
storing, retrieving, and updating values

COMPUTATIONAL PRACTICES

PRACTICE
DESCRIPTION
experimenting and iterating
developing a little bit, then trying it out, then developing some more
testing and debugging
making sure things work – and finding and solving problems when they arise
reusing and remixing
making something by building on existing projects or ideas
abstracting and modularizing
exploring connections between the whole and the parts

COMPUTATIONAL PERSPECTIVES

PERSPECTIVE
DESCRIPTION
expressing
realizing that computation is a medium of creation “I can create.”
connecting
recognizing the power of creating with and for others
“I can do different things when I have access to others.”
questioning
feeling empowered to ask questions about the world
“I can (use computation to) ask questions to make sense of (computational things in) the world.”

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ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTATIONAL PRACTICES

The following instrument can be used to assess students’ development of fluency with computational thinking practices (experimenting and iterating, testing and debugging, reusing and remixing, abstracting and modularizing). The first column indicates a question for the student (as part of a design journal prompt or interview, for example). The second, third, and fourth columns indicate how low, medium, and high levels of proficiency might be manifested.

EXPERIMENTING AND ITERATING
LOW
MEDIUM
HIGH
Describe how you built your project step by step.
Student provides a basic description of building a project, but no details about a specific project.
Student gives a general example of building a specific project in a certain order.
Student provides details about the different components of a specific project and how they were developed in a certain order.
What different things did you try out as you went along with your project?
Student does not provide specific examples of what s/he tried.
Student gives a general example of trying something in the project.
Student provides specific examples of different things s/he tries in a project.
What revisions did you make and why did you make them?
Student says s/he made no revisions, or only states s/he made revisions but gives no examples.
Student describes one specific revision s/he made to the project.
Student describes the specific things s/he added to the project and why.
Describe different ways you tried to do things in your project, or when you tried to do something new.
Student provides no examples of trying something new.
Student provides an example of trying something new in the project.
Student describes specific new things s/he tried in a project.
TESTING AND DEBUGGING
LOW
MEDIUM
HIGH
Describe what happened when you ran your project that was different from what you wanted.
Student does not describe what was different when s/he ran the project from what s/he wanted.
Student describes what went wrong in the project, but not what s/he wanted it to do.
Student gives a specific example of what happened and what s/he wanted to have happen when s/he ran the project.
Describe how you read through the scripts to investigate the cause of the problem.
Student does not describe a problem.
Student describes reading through the scripts but does not provide a specific example of finding a problem in the code.
Student describes reading through the scripts and provides a specific example of finding a problem in the code.
Describe how you made changes and tested to see what happened.
Student does not describe what problems s/he had or the solution.
Student provides a general example of making a change and testing it out to see if it worked.
This student provides a specific example of making a change and testing it out to see if it worked.
Describe how you considered other ways to solve a problem.
Student does not provide an example of a solution to a problem.
Student provides a general example of a solution to the problem.
This student provides a specific example of a solution to the problem.
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REUSING AND REMIXING
LOW
MEDIUM
HIGH
Describe if/how you found inspiration by trying other projects and reading their scripts.
Student does not describe how s/he found ideas or inspiration from other projects.
Student provides a general description of a project that inspired him/her.
Student provides a specific example of project that inspired him/her and how.
How did you select a piece of another project, and adapt it for your project?
Student does not describe how s/he adapted scripts, ideas or resources from other projects.
Student identifies scripts, ideas or resources s/he adapted from other projects.
Student provides specific examples of scripts, ideas or resources s/he adapted from other projects and how.
How did you modify an
Student does not describe
Student provides a general
Student provides specific
existing project to improve it,
modifying another project.
description of modifications
examples of modifications
or enhance it?
s/he made to another
s/he made to other projects
project.
and why.
How did you give credit to people whose work you built on or are inspired by?
Student does not give credit to others.
Student names people whose work inspired him/her.
Student documents in project and/or on the Scratch website the people whose work inspired him/her.
ABSTRACTING AND MODULARIZING
LOW
MEDIUM
HIGH
How did you decide what sprites are needed for your project, and where they should go?
Student provides no description of how s/he selected sprites.
Student provides a general description of deciding to choose certain sprites.
Student provides a specific description of how s/he made decisions about sprites based on goals for the project.
How did you decide what scripts are needed for your project, and what they should do?
Student provides no description of how s/he created scripts.
Student provides a general description of deciding to create certain scripts.
Student provides a specific description of how s/he made decisions about scripts based on goals for the project.
How did you organize the scripts in ways that make sense to you and others?
Student does not describe how s/he organized scripts.
Student provides a general description of how s/he organized the script.
Student provides specific examples of how s/he organized the script and why.






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SUPPORTING COMPUTATIONAL PRACTICES IN THE CLASSROOM

The following instrument can be used to help you reflect on how you are supporting computational practices in your learning environment – which may be a classroom, a library, or another learning environment. The purpose of the instrument is to help you notice the types of opportunities to learn that you are designing and supporting.
EXPERIMENTING AND ITERATING: developing a little bit, then trying it out, then developing some more
The activity provided opportunities for students to…
NONE
SOME
LOTS
build a project step by step



try things out as you go



make revisions based on what happens



try different ways to do things, or try new things



NOTES FOR NEXT TIME:
If none, how can I make room, or build time, for more? If some, how can I deepen, or strengthen, those activities?
If lots, what have I noticed, or learned?

TESTING AND DEBUGGING: making sure things work – and finding and solving problems when they arise
The activity provided opportunities for students to…
NONE
SOME
LOTS
observe what happens when you run your project



describe what is different from what you want



read through the scripts to investigate the cause of the problem



make changes and test to see what happens



consider other ways to solve the problem



NOTES FOR NEXT TIME:
If none, how can I make room, or build time, for more? If some, how can I deepen, or strengthen, those activities?
If lots, what have I noticed, or learned?

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REUSING AND REMIXING: making something by building on existing projects or ideas
The activity provided opportunities for students to…
NONE
SOME
LOTS
find ideas and inspiration by trying other projects and reading the scripts



select a piece of another project, and adapt it for your project



modify an existing project to improve or enhance it



give credit to people whose work you build on or are inspired by



NOTES FOR NEXT TIME:
If none, how can I make room, or build time, for more? If some, how can I deepen, or strengthen, those activities?
If lots, what have I noticed, or learned?

ABSTRACTING AND MODULARIZING: exploring connections between the whole and the parts
The activity provided opportunities for students to…
NONE
SOME
LOTS
decide what sprites are needed for your project, and where they should go



decide what scripts are needed for your project, and what they should do



organize the scripts in ways that make sense to you and others



NOTES FOR NEXT TIME:
If none, how can I make room, or build time, for more? If some, how can I deepen, or strengthen, those activities?
If lots, what have I noticed, or learned?




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146
FOR	FURTHER	READING
A selection of readings to further support your explorations of creative computing:

Books

+  Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York, NY: Basic Books.

+  Papert, S. (1993). The children’s machine: Rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York, NY: Basic Books.

+  Margolis, J., Estrella, R., Goode, J., Holme, J.J., & Nao, K. (2008). Stuck in the shallow end: Education, race, and computing.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

+  Margolis, J., & Fisher, A. (2002). Unlocking the clubhouse: Women in computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

+  Rushkoff, D. (2010). Program or be programmed: Ten commands for a digital age. New York, NY: OR Books.


Dissertations

+  Brennan, K. (2013). Best of both worlds: Issues of structure and agency in computational creation, in and out of schools.
Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

+  Monroy-Hernandez, A. (2012). Designing for remixing: Supporting an online community of amateur creators.
Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Papers

+  Brennan, K., & Resnick, M. (2012). New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking.
American Educational Research Association meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

+  Brennan, K. (2013). Learning computing through creating and connecting. IEEE Computer, Special Issue: Computing in Education. doi:10.1109/MC.2013.229














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LINKS
Links to helpful creative computing resources:


TYPE
DESCRIPTION
LINK
Website
Scratch
http://scratch.mit.edu
Website
ScratchEd
http://scratched.gse.harvard.edu
Website
Flash
http://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player.html
Resource
Offline Version of Scratch
http://scratch.mit.edu/scratch2download
Resource
Scratch Cards
http://scratch.mit.edu/help/cards
Resource
Scratch Community Guidelines
http://scratch.mit.edu/community_guidelines
Resource
Scratch Remix FAQ
http://scratch.mit.edu/help/faq/#remix
Resource
Scratch Wiki
http://wiki.scratch.mit.edu
Resource
Scratch Discussion Forums
http://scratch.mit.edu/discuss
Resource
Scratch FAQ
http://scratch.mit.edu/help/faq
Resource
LEGO WeDo Construction Set
http://bit.ly/LEGOWeDo
Resource
MaKey MaKey
http://makeymakey.com
Resource
PicoBoard
https://www.sparkfun.com/products/10311
Resource
Scratch Design Studio List
http://scratch.mit.edu/users/ScratchDesignStudio
Video
Scratch Overview Video
http://vimeo.com/65583694 http://youtu.be/-SjuiawRMU4
Video
Unit 1 Programmed to Dance Videos
http://vimeo.com/28612347 http://vimeo.com/28612585 http://vimeo.com/28612800 http://vimeo.com/28612970
Video
Backpack Video Tutorial
http://bit.ly/scratchbackpack
Video
Make a Block Video Tutorial
http://bit.ly/makeablock
Video
Variables Video Tutorial
http://bit.ly/scratchvariables
Video
How can I connect Scratch with other technologies? Video Playlist
http://bit.ly/hardwareandextensions
Video
Scratch Chain Reaction Video
http://bit.ly/ScratchChainReaction




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Developed by the ScratchEd team at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and released under a Creative Commons license.




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